SHS Web Conf.
Volume 157, 20232022 International Conference on Educational Science and Social Culture (ESSC 2022)
|Number of page(s)||5|
|Section||Human Behavioural Science and Social Development|
|Published online||13 February 2023|
The Ultimate Athlete: Genetics Vs. Training
Stony Brook, New York
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper examines what determines athletic ability between genetics and training. The papers seek to answer why some athletes perform excellently in sprinting, long-distance racing, swimming, and jumping, yet they are almost subjected to similar training in their respective sports. The paper starts by examining constituents of skeletal muscles: slow-twitch oxidative and fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, which are associated with long-distance running and sprinting, respectively. Findings indicate that the performance of these muscles is triggered by genes: ACTN3 and ACE. Further, the paper brings in the science of biomechanics. Biomechanics shows that the ultimate body performance depends on specific body features that are gene-engineered. Long arms and a long torso are ideal for excellent performance due to enhanced body movement. Explanation of biomechanics is centered on Micheal Phelps, an American swimmer who has won multiple world records due to his favoring body features. Also, the article brings the case of Usain Bolt, whose composition of both slow-twitch and fast-twitch fibers transformed him into a superhuman as the world’s best sprinter. Further research indicates that although genes have an authoritative role in determining athletic ability, training, which is greatly influenced by environmental factors, such as a change in altitude, ambient temperature, and humidity, must come into play. For the genes to remain active, an athlete must engage in training within an environment that supports positive outcomes. An athlete must engage in practices that support thermoregulation to enhance heat loss. One must maintain a higher surface area to mass ratio, stay hydrated, and wear woolen clothes to enable heat loss and prevent cases of hyperthermia. The overall findings indicate that although the ultimate athletic ability depends primarily on genes, training must come into play to support and sustain improved performance.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2023
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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