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Volume 161, 202312th Kant-Readings International Conference “Kant and the Ethics of Enlightenment: Historical Roots and Contemporary Relevance”
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Kant and the History of Enlightenment Ethics|
|Published online||08 March 2023|
Kant’s philosophy as the development of the intentions of enlightenment
Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 14 Aleksandra Nevskogo st., Kaliningrad, 236041, Russian Federation
* Corresponding author: LKalinnikov@kantiana.ru
Ernst Cassirer in his The Philosophy of the Enlightenment writes of Kant’s overcoming of the Enlightenment yet giving its deepest justification. This justification came in the form of epistemology which transformed the modern worldview, handing its form and content over to science. The medieval theistic worldview had to be cleansed from miracles and mysticism and give way to a scientific worldview. However, the Enlighteners, though initiating this movement, could not follow it through and failed to break the ties to theology. This was true in psychology, epistemology, philosophy of history and religion, law and the state. Kant’s role was to complete this task. His philosophy is built upon the principle of the material unity of the world. This required the creation of transcendental anthropology which resolved the problem of the human being and the natural foundations of reason – the problem that had puzzled the most prominent thinkers of the Enlightenment. The principle of the material unity of the world is consistently maintained from the first Critique to the Opus Postumum, making Kant’s system monistic. In order to maintain this unity, Kant had to subordinate formal logic to transcendental logic which made extensive use of the antinomical dialectic, the principle of the relativity of rational thinking, including the relativity of such ideas of reason as object and subject. Kant’s effort resulted in human nature’s being presented as part of the whole of nature, and so the limit of Enlightenment thinking was overcome.
Key words: Kant / Enlightenment / science / scientific validity of philosophy / scientific worldview / Ernst Cassirer
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2023
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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